Linkage devices notes लिंकेज डिवाइस



Linking words and phrases in English (also called ‘connective’ or ‘transition’ words) are used
to combine two clauses or sentences presenting contrast, comparison, condition, supposition, purpose, etc. They enable us to establish clear connections between ideas.

Most linking words can either connect clauses within a sentence, or start a sentence to form
a link with the previous statement.

♦Note : A clause is a group of words that includes a subject and a verb. 
 The following sentence contains two clauses: 

 She lives in Mexico because she likes the climate.

Below you will find some examples of linking words and how to use them.  This is not a comprehensive list. You may want to add your own linking words and phrases.

Examples of linking words within one sentence:

Linking Words Example of use

1.As long as
provided (that)

eg:- You can take my car as long as/provided (that)/providing 
you don’t damage it.
(I will lend you my car on condition that you don’t damage it.)

2.Although/even thoughAlthough/even though

 eg:- he is rich, he lives in a small house.
(In spite of the fact that he is rich, he lives in a small house.)

3.Even if

eg:- He is poor and has no house, buteven if he had money, he 
wouldn’t buy a house.
(Supposing he had the money, he still wouldn’t buy a house.)

4.In case

eg:- Take an umbrella in case it rains.
(It might rain, so it’s a good idea to take an umbrella.)

5.In spite of / despiteIn spite of

the rain, she walked to the station.
in spite of/despite being blind, he walked to the station.
(without being affected by the rain or by being blind.)

6.So that

eg:- She arrived early so that she could help her colleagues.
(She arrived early for the purpose of helping her colleagues.)


eg:- You can count on me whatever you decide to do.
(No matter what your decision is, you can count on me.)


eg:- Tom is rich, whereas Jack is poor.
(Tom is rich; in contrast Jack is poor.)


eg:- I will lend you my car whenever you need it.
(No matter when you need my car, I will lend it to you.)


eg:- My thoughts will be with you wherever you go.
(No matter where you go, my thoughts will be with you.)  

Examples of linking words that connect two separate sentences or two clauses:

♦Note : If linking words start a sentence, they are followed by a comma. 
   When they are used to connect two clauses, a semi-colon is used at the end 
   of the first clause, and a comma is often used after the linking word(s).
  Linking WordsExample of use  

1.As a result

eg:- Prices were reduced by 20%. As a result, sales increased.

eg:- The company is expanding. Consequently, there are jobs on offer.

eg:- A hurricane has been announced. Therefore, air traffic will be disrupted. 
In addition

The trip is too expensive. Besides, I don’t really like hot weather.

eg:- Computers are cheaper nowadays; furthermore, they are lighter.
You haven’t paid the rent yet.  
In addition, you owe me money.

eg:- The report is badly presented. Moreover, it contains inaccuracies.  

For instance
For example

eg:- There are several problems to consider; for instance/for example,
there is a lack of public transport.
On the contrary/
On the other hand

eg:- Northern European countries had a great summer.
On the contrary/conversely, southern Europe had poor weather.

eg:- Laptops are convenient; on the other hand, they can be expensive


eg:- The hotel was open. However, nobody came to the reception desk.

eg:- He had severe injuries; nevertheless, he completely recovered. 

eg:- The weather was bitterly cold.  He went hiking nonetheless.

In the same way/
By the same token

eg:- Alex enjoys telling jokes; in the same way/similarly/likewise,
his son adores funny stories.

eg:- Teenagers should be more respectful; by the same token, parents should be more understanding. 

To summarise/sum up
To conclude
In conclusion

eg:- I’ve covered the main events of the year. 
To sum up/briefly, our team is now one of the best in the world.

eg:-To conclude, I want to wish you all a very happy holiday season.